Michael Milligan, Consultant

Milligan Grid Solutions, Inc.

 

Technical Articles, Reports, Book Chapters, FERC Filings




book


(NREL’s publication database also includes some presentations: Publications at NREL)

 

1.         Milligan, M. (2018). Sources of grid reliability services. The Electricity Journal, 31(9), pp. 1-7.

2.         Reply Comments of Michael Milligan, Ph.D.: Grid Resilience in Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators. Docket AD18-7-000. Available at http://www.milligangridsolutions.com/milligan%20ferc%20comments%20AD%2018-7-000%20from%20FERC%20web.pdf. 2018.

3.         Reply Comments of Michael Milligan, Ph.D. Grid Reliability and Resiliency Pricing, Docket No. RM18-1-000. Available at http://www.milligangridsolutions.com/Milligan-Comments-FERC%20from%20ferc%20web.pdf. 2017

4.         Milligan, M.; Frew, B.; Clark, K; Bloom, A. (2017). Marginal Cost Pricing in a World without Perfect Competition: Implications for Electricity Markets with High Shares of Low Marginal Cost Resources. NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-69076 . December. Available at https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy18osti/69076.pdf.

5.         Söder, L.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Silva, V.; O’Neill, B.; Pellinger, C.; Flunn, D.; Holttinen, J.; Lopez-Botet, M.; Milligan, M. Comparison of integration studies of 30-40 percent energy share from variable renewable sources.  Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants. Berlin, Germany. Oct 25-27, 2017.

6.         Palchek, David; Cochran, Jaquelin; Ehlen, Ali; McBennet, Brandon, Milligan, Michael;  Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Deshmukh, Ranjit; Abhyankar, Nikit; Soonee, Sushil Kumar; Narasimhan, S.R.; Joshi, Mohit; Sreedharan, Priya. Greening the Grid: Pathways to Integrate 175 Gigawatts of Renewable Energy into India’s Electric Grid, Vol 1 – National Study. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 2017. https://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy17osti/68530.pdf

7.         Aaron Bloom, Bethany Frew, Aaron Townsend, Erik Ela, Todd Levin, Audun Botterud: Electricity Markets, Renewable Generation and Software Agents: Traditional and Emerging Market Designs. Springer, 2018. https://www.springer.com/us/book/9783319742618

8.         Frew, B.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Bloom, A.; Clark, K; Denholm, P: Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future. Proceedings of the 15th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants. Vienna, Austria. Nov 15-17, 2016.

9.         Frew, B.; Gallo, G.; Brinkman, G.; Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; Bloom, A. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency. NREL Technical Report NREL/TP-dD00-66076 (2016). http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy16osti/66076.pdf.

10.      (Multiple Authors), M. Milligan, Hydropower Vision: A New Chapter for America’s 1st Renewable Electricity Source. United States Department of Energy. Available at http://energy.gov/eere/water/articles/hydropower-vision-new-chapter-america-s-1st-renewable-electricity-source.

11.      Peña, I.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin T. Market designs for revenue sufficiency and flexibility provision for the integration of renewable energy.

12.      Holttinen, H.; et al (2016). Design and operation of power systems with large amounts of wind power: Final summary report, IEA Wind Task 25, Phase three 2012-2014. http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/technology/2016/T268.pdf

13.      Michael Milligan; Bethany A Frew; Aaron Bloom; Erik Ela; Audun Botterud; Aaron Townsend; Todd Levin: Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Part 1 Revenue Sufficiency and Long-Term Reliability. 2016. Electricity Journal, 29, pp 26-38.

14.      Erik Ela; Michael Milligan; Aaron Bloom; Audun Botterud; Aaron Townsend; Todd Levin; Bethany A Frew: Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation: Part 2 Incentivizing Flexibility in System Operations. 2016. Electricity Journal, 29, pp 51-60.

15.      Lori Bird, Debra Lew, Michael Milligan, E. Maria Carlini, Ana Estanqueiro, Damian Flynn, Emilio Gomez-Lazaro, Hannele Holttinen, Nickie Menemenlis, Antje Orths, Peter Børre Eriksen, J. Charles Smith, Lennart Soder, Poul Sorensen, Argyrios Altiparmakis, Yoh Yasuda, John Miller: Wind and Solar Energy Curtailment: A Review of International Experience. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Elsevier. Vol 65, pp 577-586. 2016..

16.      Aidan Tuohy, Eamonn Lannoye, Jody Dillon, Chris Dent, Amy Wilson, S. Zachary, E. Ibanez, M. Milligan: Capacity Adequacy and Variable Generation: Improved Probabilistic Methods for Representing Variable Generation in Resource Adequacy Assessment. Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration with National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK; Durham University, Durham, UK; Ecar Energy Ltd, Ireland.

17.      Milligan, Michael; Bethany Frew; Ibanez, Eduardo; Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Söder, Lennart, Capacity Value Assessments for Wind Power: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration. Wiley Wires. 2016.

18.      Juha Kiviluoma, Hannele Holttinen David Weir, Richard Scharff, Lennart Söder, Nickie Menemenlis, Nicolaos A. Cutululis, Irene Danti Lopez, Eamonn Lannoye, Ana Estanqueiro, Emilio Gomez-Lazaro, Qin Zhang, Jianhua Bai, Yih-Huei Wan, Michael Milligan: Variability in large-scale wind power generation. Wind Energ. (2015). Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/we.1942

19.      Milligan, M.; Few, B.; Zhou, E.; Arent, D.: Advancing System Flexibility for High Penetration Renewable Integration. Part of the China Grids Program for a Low-Carbon Future, supported by the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation. NREL technical report NREL/TP-6A20-64864, Oct. 2015.

20.      Milligan, M.; Frew, B.; Kirby, B; Schuerger, M.; Clark, K.; Lew, D.; Denholm, P.; Zavadil, B.; O’Malley, M.; Tsuchida, B. Alternatives No More: Wind and Solar Power are Mainstays of a Clean, Reliable, Affordable Grid. IEEE Power and Energy Society, Power and Energy Magazine. Nov/Dec 2015.

21.      Ahlstrom, M.; Ela, E.; Riesz, J.; O’Sullivan, J.; Hobbs, B.; O’Malley, M.; Milligan, M.; Sotkiewics, P.; Caldwell, J.: Evolution of the Market: Designing a Market for High Levels of Variable Generation. IEEE Power and Energy Society, Power and Energy Magazine. Nov/Dec 2015.

22.      Donohoo, P.; Milligan, M.; Frew, B. Capricious Cables – A Guide to Transmission Planning Concepts for Policy-Makers. Electricity Journal, Vol 28, #9, Nov. 2015. Pp 85-99. NREL Technical report version.

23.      Huertas-Hernando and D.; Farahmand, H, (SINTEF, Norway), Holttinen, H., Kiviluoma, J. and Rinne, E. (VTT, Finland), Amelin M. and Söder, L. (KTH, Sweden), Milligan, M. and Ibanez, E. (NREL, USA), Martín Martínez, S. And Gomez-Lazaro, (Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), Estanqueiro, A. And Rodrigues, L. (LNEG, Portugal), Carr, L. And von Roon, S., FfE, Germany, Orths, A. And Børre Eriksen, P. (Energinet.dk, Denmark), Forcione, A. and Menemenlis, N. (Hydro Quebec, Canada) Hydropower flexibility for power systems with variable renewable energy sources. Wiley Interdisciplinary Review, Energy and Environment. (2016)

24.      Samaan, Nader; Milligan, Michael; Hunsaker, Matt; Guo, T.: Approach for Evaluating the Benefits of Intra-Hour Scheduling between Balancing Authorities. IEEE Power and Energy General Meeting, Denver, CO. 2015. DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2015.7286647

25.      Mark Ahlstrom; Charlie Smith; Richard J Piwko; Debra Lew; Aaron Bloom; Trieu Mai; Kara Clark; Michael Milligan: Relevant Studies for NERC's Analysis of EPA's Clean Power Plan 111(d) Compliance, Utility Variable Generation Integration Group; GE Energy 2015. NREL/TP-5D00-63979

26.      M Milligan; B Kirby; T Acker; M Ahlstrom; B Frew; M Goggin; W Lasher; M Marquis; D Osborn: Review and Status of Wind Integration and Transmission in the United States: Key Issues and Lessons Learned. (Supplement to the US DOE Wind Vision). Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy15osti/61911.pdf. 2015

27.      United States Department of Energy – Wind Vision: A New Era for Wind Power in the United States. http://www.energy.gov/windvision. 2015. Task Force and author lead for Transmission and Grid Integration.

28.      Y. Yasuda (Kansai University, Japan), A. Estanqueiro (LNEG, Portugal), N. Cutululis (DTU, Denmark), E. Gómez-Lázaro (University of Castilla-La Mancha, Spain), J. Kondoh (Tokyo University of Science, Japan), M. Milligan (NREL, USA), H. Holttinen (VTT, Finland), A. Orths (Energinet.dk, Denmark), J. C. Smith (UVIG, USA), An Objective Measure of Interconnection Usage for High Levels of Wind Integration. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems. Berlin, Germany. Nov 11-13, 2014.

29.      S. Nolan, D. Burke, H. Wajahat Qazi, D. Flynn, M. O'Malley (UCD, Ireland), J. Kiviluoma (VTT, Finland), M. Hummon, B. Kirby, M. Milligan (NREL, USA) (WIW14-1179), Synergies between Wind and Solar Generation and Demand Response: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems. Berlin, Germany. Nov 11-13, 2014.

30.      H. Holttinen, J. Kiviluoma (VTT, Finland), J. McCann, M. Clancy (SEAI, Ireland), I. Pineda (EWEA, Belgium), M. Milligan (NREL, USA) (WIW14-1114), Estimating the Reduction of Generating System CO2 Emissions Resulting from Significant Wind Energy Penetration. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems. Berlin, Germany. Nov 11-13, 2014.

31.      E. Ibanez, M. Milligan (NREL, USA) (WIW14-1063), Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems. Berlin, Germany. Nov 11-13, 2014.

32.      J. Kiviluoma, H. Holttinen (VTT, Finland), R. Scharff (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden), D. E. Weir (Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Norway), N. Cutululis, M. Litong-Palima (DTU Wind Energy, Denmark), M. Milligan (NREL, USA) (WIW14-1154), Index for Wind Power Variability. 13th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems. Berlin, Germany. Nov 11-13, 2014.

33.      Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Bloom, A.; Botterud, A.; Townsend, A.; Levin, T. (2014). Evolution of Wholesale Electricity Market Design with Increasing Levels of Renewable Generation. 139 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5D00-61765. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61765.pdf.

34.      Jones, L. (editor) (2014). Renewable Energy Integration: Practical Management for Variability, Uncertainty, and Flexibility in Power Grids. Elsevier.

35.      Holttinen, H.; O’Malley, M.; Flynn, D.; Milligan, M.; Smith, J. (2014) Recommended Practices for Wind Integration Studies. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, National Harbor, Maryland.

36.      Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Orths, A.; Lynch, M.; Soder, L. (2014) Market Design for High Levels of Variable Generation: An IEA Collaboration. IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, National Harbor, Maryland.

37.      Donohoo, P.; Milligan, M. (2014). Capricious Cables: Understanding the Key Concepts in Transmission Expansion Planning and Its Models. 24 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5D00-61680. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61680.pdf. 

38.      Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M. (2014). Comparing Resource Adequacy Metrics and Their Influence on Capacity Value: Preprint. Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems Conference, Durham, England. 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5D00-61017. Pre-print available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61017.pdf.

39.      Ibanez, E.; Magee, T.; Clement, M.; Brinkman, G.; Milligan, M.; Zagona, E. (2014), Enhancing hydropower modeling in variable generation integration studies. Energy, 74 (2014) 518-528.

40.      Riesz, J. and Milligan, M. (2014), Designing electricity markets for a high penetration of variable renewables. WIREs Energy Environment. doi: 10.1002/wene.137

41.      North American Electric Reliability Corporation (2014). Integrating Variable Generation Task Force 1.6: Probabilistic Methods. Task Force Lead: Michael Milligan and Mark O’Malley.

42.      Task Force Report (2014) Collaborative Review of Planning Models. Conducted for the California Public Utilities Commission.

43.      Corbus, D.; Hurlbut, D.; Schwabe, P.; Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G.; Paduru, A.; Diakov, V.; Hand, M. (2014) California-Wyoming Grid Integration Study Phase 1—Economic Analysis. Study conducted for the Wyoming Infrastructure Authority. 84 pp.; NREL Report  NREL/TP-6A20-61192. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61192.pdf.

44.      Mai, T.; Hand, M. M.; Baldwin, S. F.; Wiser, R. H.; Brinkman, G. L.; Denholm, P.; Arent, D. J.; Porro, G.; Sandor, D.; Hostick, D. J.; Milligan, M.; DeMeo, E. A.; Bazilian, M. (2014). Renewable Electricity Futures for the United States. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. Vol. 5(2), April 2014; pp. 372-378; NREL Report No. JA-6A20-58804. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2013.2290472

45.      Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Zinaman, O.; Milligan, M.; Arent, D.; Palmintier, B.; O'Malley, M.; Mueller, S.; Lannoye, E.; Tuohy, A.; Kujala, B.; Sommer, M.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Soonee, S. K. (2014). Flexibility in 21st Century Power Systems. 21st Century Power Partnership. 14 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-61721. http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy14osti/61721.pdf

46.       Ela, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Tuohy, A.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; O'Malley, M. (2014). Market Designs for the Primary Frequency Response Ancillary Service - Part II: Case Studies. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Vol. 29(1), January; pp. 432-440; NREL Report No. JA-5D00-55357. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2264951

47.      Ela, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Tuohy, A.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; O'Malley, M. (2014). Market Designs for the Primary Frequency Response Ancillary Service -- Part I: Motivation and Design. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Vol. 29(1), January; pp. 421-431; NREL Report No. JA-5D00-55356. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2013.2264942

48.      Ahlstrom, M.; Bartlett, D.; Collier, C.; Duchesne, J.; Edelson, D.; Gesino, A.; Keyser, M.; Maggio, D.; Milligan, M.; Mohrlen, C.; O’Sullivan, J.; Sharp, J.; Storck, P.; de la Torre Rodriquez, M. (2013) Knowledge is Power: Efficiently Integrating Wind Energy and Wind Forecasts. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, Nov/Dec.

49.      Holttinen, H.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.; Lannoye, E.; Silva, V.; Muller, S.; Soder, L.  (2013) The Flexibility Workout, IEEE Power and Energy Magazine, Nov/Dec.

50.      Holttinen, H.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Menemenlis, N.; Dobschinski, J.; Rawn, B.; Bessa, R. J.; Flynn, D.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Detlefsen, N. (2013). Methodologies to Determine Operating Reserves Due to Increased Wind Power. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES), 21-25 July 2013, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5D00-61586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PESMG.2013.6673067

51.      Holttinen, H.; Orths, A.; Abildgaard, H.; van Hulle, F.; Kiviluoma, J.; Lange, B.; O’Malley, M.; Flnn, D.; Keane, A.; Dillon, J.; Carlini, E.; Tande, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Lazaro, E.; Soder, L.; Milligan, M.; Smith, J.; Clark, C. (2013), Expert Group Report on Recommended Practices 16 – Wind Integration Studies. International Energy Agency, Paris, France. 

52.      Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M. (2013). Short-Term Load Forecast Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies. Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE Green Technologies Conference, 4-5 April 2013, Denver, Colorado. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); pp. 435-442; NREL Report No. CP-5D00-60777. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/GreenTech.2013.73

53.      Miller, M.; Bird, L.; Cochran, J.; Milligan, M.; Bazilian, M.; Denny, E.; Dillon, J.; Bialek, J.; O'Malley, M.; Neuhoff, K. (2013). RES-E-NEXT: Next Generation of RES-E Policy Instruments. 102 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-58882.

54.      Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.; Brinkman, G; Magee, T.; Zagona, E.; Clement, M. (2013). Large-Scale Integration of Hydro, Wind, and Solar Power with Detailed Hydro Modeling (Poster). NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory). 1 pg.; NREL Report No. PO-5500-60036.

55.      Milligan, M.; Clark, K.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, G. (2013). Examination of Potential Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market in the Western Interconnection. 122 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-57115.

56.      Bansal, R.; Benjamin, T. G.; Butler, P. C.; Carlin, P.; Eyer, J.; Fortuna, R.; Kamath, H.; Kopasz, J. P.; Canteli, M. M.; Milligan, M. R.; Morley, N. B.; Podolski, W. F.; Shevenell, L. A.; Sinclair, K.; Souder, H. C.; Thresher, R.; Tillack, M. S. (2013). Chapter 11: Alternate Sources of Power. Beaty, H. W., and Fink, D. G., eds. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers, Sixteenth Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc. pp. 11.1-11.167; NREL Report No. CH-5000-53154.

57.      Cochran, J.; Miller, M.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Arent, D.; Bloom, A.; Futch, M.; Kiviluoma, J.; Holtinnen, H.; Orths, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Kukoda, S.; Garcia, G.; Mikkelsen, K. M.; Yongqiang, Z.; Sandholt, K. (2013). Market Evolution: Wholesale Electricity Market Design for 21st Century Power Systems. 57 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-57477.

58.      Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Peneda, I.; Smith, C. (2013). Wind Integration Cost and Cost-Causation: Preprint. Prepared for the 12th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power Into Power Systems, October 22-24, London, England; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5D00-60411.

59.      Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D. (2013). Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions. 14 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-60451. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/60451.pdf

60.      Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M. (2013). Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint. Prepared for the IEEE Green Technologies Conference, April 4-5, Denver, Colorado; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-57340. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy13osti/57340.pdf

61.      Lew, D.; Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Speer, B.; Wang, X.; Carlini, E. M.; Estanqueiro, A.; Flynn, D.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Menemenlis, N.; Orths, A.; Pineda, I.; Smith, J. C.; Soder, L.; Sorensen, P.; Altiparmakis, A.; Yoh, Y. (2013). Wind and Solar Curtailment Prepared for the International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power Into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, October 22-24, London, England; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-60245.

62.      Ackermann, T. (ed), (2012) Wind Power in Power Systems. Wiley Press. Preface by Milligan, M.; Porter, K.; DeMeo, E.; Denholm, P.; Holttinen, H.; Kirby, B.; Miller, N.; Mills, A.; O’Malley, M.; Schuerger, M.; Soder, L.

63.      Florita, A.; Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M. (2012). Wind Power Forecasting Error Frequency Analyses for Operational Power System Studies: Preprint. Prepared for the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference, November 13-15, Lisbon, Portugal; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-56086. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/56086.pdf

64.      Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Sillanpaa, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Scharff, R.; Soder, L.; Larsen, X. G.; Giebel, G.; Flynn, D.; Dobschinski, J. (2012). Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions: An International Comparison. Prepared for the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference, November 13-15, Lisbon, Portugal; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-56130. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/56130.pdf

65.      Duignan, R.; Dent, C. J.; Mills, A.; Samaan, N.; Milligan, M.; Keane, A.; O'Malley, M. (2012). Capacity Value of Solar Power. Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 22-26 July 2012, San Diego, California. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); 6 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-54832. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2012.6345429

66.      Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Tuohy, A.; Brooks, D. (2012). Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service. 21 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-54393. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/54393.pdf

67.      Hodge, B. M.; Orwig, K.; Milligan, M. (2012). Examining Information Entropy Approaches as Wind Power Forecasting Performance Metrics: Preprint. Prepared for the 12th International Conference on Probabilistic; Methods Applied to Power Systems, June 10-14, Istanbul, Turkey; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-53515. 

68.      Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M. (2012). Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint. Prepared for the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum, May 13-17, Denver, Colorado; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-54384. 

69.      Bird, L.; Milligan, M. (2012). Lessons from Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration Studies: Preprint. Prepared for the 2012 World Renewable Energy Forum, May 13-17, Denver, Colorado; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-6A20-54666. 

70.      Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C. (2012). Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, June 3-6, Atlanta, Georgia; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-54905.

71.      Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; O'Malley, M. (2012). Stochastic Methods for Planning and Operating Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind and Solar Power: Preprint. Prepared for the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference, November 13-15, Lisbon, Portugal; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-56208. 

72.      Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C.; Pineda, I. (2012). Markets to Facilitate Wind and Solar Energy Integration in the Bulk Power Supply: An IEA Task 25 Collaboration; Preprint. Prepared for the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference, November 13-15, Lisbon, Portugal; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-56212. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/56212.pdf

73.      King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Beuning, S. (2012). Operating Reserve Reductions from a Proposed Energy Imbalance Market with Wind and Solar Generation in the Western Interconnection. 90 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-54660.         

74.      Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M. (2012). Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint. Prepared for the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference, November 13-15, Lisbon, Portugal; 7 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-56219. 

75.      Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hein, J.; Schneider, T.; Brinkman, G.; Denholm, P. (2012). Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 4: Bulk Electric Power Systems: Operations and Transmission Planning. (Volume 4 of 4). Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory; 72 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A20-52409-4. 

76.      Orwig, K.; Hodge, B. M.; Brinkman, G.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Banunarayanan, V.; Nasir, S.; Freedman, J. (2012). Economic Evaluation of Short-Term Wind Power Forecasts in ERCOT: Preliminary Results; Preprint. Prepared for the 11th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as Well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants Conference, November 13-15, Lisbon, Portugal; 7 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-56257. 

77.      Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M. (2012). Effects of Transmission in the Capacity Value of Wind Power. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, June 3-6, Atlanta, Georgia.

78.      Kirby, B.; King, J.; Milligan, M. (2012). Alternative Approaches to Calculate Benefits of an Energy Imbalance Market With Wind and Solar Energy: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, June 3-6, Atlanta, Georgia; 19 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-54906. 

79.      Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M. (2012). Impact of Transmission on Resource Adequacy in Systems with Wind and Solar Power. Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 22-26 July 2012, San Diego, California. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 5 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-57685. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2012.6343955

80.      Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Soder, L.; Clark, C. (2012). Market Structures to Enable Efficient Wind and Solar Power Integration. Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 22-26 July 2012, San Diego, California. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 6 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-53538. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2012.6345591

81.      Martin-Martinez, S.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Molina-Garcia, A.; Vigueras-Rodriguez, A.; Milligan, M.; Muljadi, E. (2012). Participation of Wind Power Plants in the Spanish Power System During Events. Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 22-26 July 2012, San Diego, California. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-54501. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/PESGM.2012.6345017

82.      Ela, E.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Brooks, D. (2012). Alternative Approaches for Incentivizing the Frequency Responsive Reserve Ancillary Service. Electricity Journal. Vol. 25(4), May; pp. 88-102; NREL Report No. JA-5500-55022. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2012.04.015

83.      Troy, N.; Flynn, D.; Milligan, M.; O’Malley, M. (2012). Unit Commitment with Dynamic Cycling Costs. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Vol. 27(4), November; pp. 2196-2205. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2192141

84.      Milligan, M.; Bird, L.; Tegen, S.; Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Kirby, B. (2012). Wind Power: Economy, Market, Subsidies, Payment Mechanisms, Capacity Credit. Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. Springer.

85.      Holttinen, H.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Menemenlis, N.; Dobschinski, J.; Rawn, B.; Bessa, B.; Flynn, D.; Gómez-Lázaro, E.; Detlefsen, N. (2012). Methodologies to Determine Operating Reserves Due to Increased Wind Power. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. Vol. 3(4), October; pp. 713-723. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2012.2208207

86.      Kiviluoma, J.; Meibom, P.; Tuohy, A.; Troy, N.; Milligan, M.; Lange, B.; Gibescu, M.; O’Malley, M. (2012). Short-Term Energy Balancing With Increasing Levels of Wind Energy. IEEE Transactions on Sustainable Energy. Vol. 3(4), October; pp. 1949-3029. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2012.2209210 

87.      Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Lew, D.; Corbus, D.; Wan, Y; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B. (2012). Assessment of Simulated Wind Data Requirements for Wind Integration Studies. IEEE Journal on Sustainability. Vol. 3(4), October; pp. 620-626. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSTE.2011.2160880

88.      Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Lew, D.; Corbus, D.; Wan, Y; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B. (2012). Operational Analysis and Methods for Wind Integration Studies. IEEE Journal on Sustainability. Vol. 3(4), October; pp. 612-619. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TSTE/2011.2160881 

89.      Holttinen, H.; et al (2011). Design and operation of power systems with large amounts of wind power: Final summary report, IEA Wind Task 25, Phase two 2009-2011. http://www.ieawind.org/task_25/PDF/HomePagePDF's/T75.pdf

90.      Lew, D.; Piwko, R.; Jordan, G.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L.; Milligan, M. (2011). Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. Ackermann, T., ed. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 25-26 October 2011, Aarhus, Denmark. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 7 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-52400.

91.      Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K. (2011). Integration of Variable Generation, Cost-Causation, and Integration Costs. Electricity Journal. Vol. 24(9), November; pp. 51-63. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2011.10.011

92.      Ibanez, E.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R. (2011). Evaluating the Synergies of Renewable Generation and PHEVs. Ackermann, T., ed. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 25-26 October 2011, Aarhus, Denmark. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 4 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-52286.

93.      Hodge, B. M.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M. (2011). Distribution of Wind Power Forecast Errors from Operational Systems. Ackermann, T., ed. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 25-26 October 2011, Aarhus, Denmark. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 6 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-52568.

94.      Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K. (2011). Are Integration Costs and Tariffs Based on Cost-Causation?. Ackermann , T., ed. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 25-26 October 2011, Aarhus, Denmark. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-52402.

95.      Milligan, M.; King, J.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S. (2011). Impact of Alternative Dispatch Intervals on Operating Reserve Requirements for Variable Generation. Ackermann , T., ed. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 25-26 October 2011, Aarhus, Denmark. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 6 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-52506.

96.      Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M. (2011). Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power. Ackermann , T., ed. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 25-26 October 2011, Aarhus, Denmark. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 6 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-52910.

97.      Sims, R.; Mercado, P.; Krewitt, W.; Bhuyan, G.; Flynn, D.; Holttinen, H.; Jannuzzi, G.; Khennas, S.; Liu, Y.; O’Malley, M.; Nilsson, L.J.; Ogden, J.; Ogimoto, K.; Outhred, H.; Ulleberg, Ø.; van Hulle, F. (2011). “Integration of Renewable Energy into Present and Future Energy Systems.” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report: Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation [O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, K. Seyboth, P. Matschoss, S. Kadner, T. Zwickel, P. Eickemeier, G. Hansen, S. Schlömer, C. von Stechow (eds)]. Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, USA: Cambridge University Press. Contributing authors M. Bazilian (Austria/USA), M. Beerepoot (France), T. Demayo (USA/Canada), E. Denny (Ireland), D. Infield (United Kingdom), A. Keane (Ireland), A. Lee (USA), M. Milligan (USA), A. Mills (USA), M. Power (Ireland), P. Smith (Ireland), L. Söder (Sweden), A. Tuohy (USA), F. Ueckerdt (Germany), and J. Zhang (Sweden).

98.      Lauby, M.; Ahlstrom, M.; Brooks, D.; Beuning, S.; Caspary, J.; Grant, W.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; O’Malley, M.; Patel, M.; Piwko, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Shirmohammadi, D.; Smith, J. (2011). Balancing Act. IEEE Power and Energy. Vol. 9(6), November/December; pp. 75-85. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPE.2011.942352

99.      Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2011). Operating Reserves and Variable Generation. A comprehensive review of current strategies, studies, and fundamental research on the impact that increased penetration of variable renewable generation has on power system operating reserves. 103 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-51978. 

100.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S. (2011). Operating Reserve Implication of Alternative Implementations of an Energy Imbalance Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection: Preprint. Prepared for the 2011 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting, 24-29 July 2011, Detroit, Michigan; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-51343. 

101.   King, J.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; S. Beuning (2011). Flexibility Reserve Reductions from an Energy Imbalance Market with High Levels of Wind Energy in the Western Interconnection. 100 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-52330.

102.   Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Hodge, B. M.; Kirby, B.; Lew, D.; Clark, C.; DeCesaro, J.; Lynn, K. (2011). Cost-Causation and Integration Cost Analysis for Variable Generation. 37 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-51860. 

103.   Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R. (2011). Value of Wind Power Forecasting. 13 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-50814.

104.   Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; O'Malley, M. (2011). Flexible Power System Operations Simulation Model for Assessing Wind Integration: Preprint. Prepared for the Power & Energy Society General Meeting, Detroit, Michigan, July 24-29, 2011; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-50641.

105.   Hodge, B-M; Lew, D; Milligan, M. (2011). The Impact of High Wind Power Penetrations on Hydroelectric Unit Operations in the WWSIS. 8 pp.; NREL Report NREL/TP-5500-52251. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/52251.pdf.

106.                 North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Integrating Variable Generation Task Force on Probabilistic Methods Team. M. Milligan and M. O’Malley, leads. (2011). Methods to Model and Calculate Capacity Contributions of Variable Generation for Resource Adequacy Planning. Available at https://www.nerc.com/comm/PC/Integration%20of%20Variable%20Generation%20Task%20Force%20IVGT/Sub%20Teams/Probabilistic%20Techniques/IVGTF1-2.pdf

107.   Keane, A.; Milligan, M.; D’Annunzio, C.; Dent, C.; Dragoon, K.; Hasche, B.; Holttinen, H.; Samaan, N.; Söder, L.; O’Malley, M. (2011). Capacity Value of Wind Power. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol 26, No. 2, May. (IEEE Wind Capacity Value Task Force paper.)

108.   Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.; Beuning, S.; Lew, D.; Kirby, B.; King, J. (2011). An Analysis of the Impact of Balancing Area Cooperation on the Operation of the Western Interconnection with Wind and Solar Generation. (Link to presentation only). Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, May 22-25, Anaheim, California.

109.   Kiviluoma, J.; O'Malley, M.; Tuohy, A.; Meibom, P.; Milligan, M.; Lange, B.; Holttinen, H.; Gibescu, M. (2011). Impact of Wind Power on the Unit Commitment, Operating Reserves, and Market Design. 2011 IEEE PES (Power and Energy Society) General Meeting: The Electrification of Transportation and the Grid of the Future, 24-28 July 2011, Detroit, Michigan. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-53786. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pes.2011.6039621

110.   Hodge, B. M.; Milligan, M. (2011). Wind Power Forecasting Error Distributions over Multiple Timescales: Preprint. 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-50614. 

111.   Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Lannoye, E.; Milligan, M.; Flynn, D.; Zavadil, B.; O'Malley, M. (2011). Evolution of Operating Reserve Determination in Wind Power Integration Studies. Prepared for the 2010 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 25-29 July 2010, Minneapolis, Minnesota; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-49100. 

112.   O'Malley, M.; Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Dent, C.; Keane, A. (2010). Capacity Value of Wind Power - Summary. Ackermann , T., ed. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 18-19 October 2010, Quebec, Canada. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 2 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-54614.

113.   North American Electric Reliability Corporation. Integrating Variable Generation Task Force on Probabilistic Methods Team. M. Milligan and M. O’Malley, leads. (2010). Special Report: Flexibility Requirements and Metrics for Variable Generation: Implications for System Planning Studies. Available at http://www.nerc.com/docs/pc/ivgtf/IVGTF_Task_1_4_Final.pdf

114.   Kiviluoma, J.; O'Malley, M.; Tuohy, A.; Milligan, M.; Lange, B.; Holttinen, H.; Gibescu, M.; Meibom, P.; Vigueras-Rodriguez, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E. (2010). Impact of Wind Power on the Unit Commitment and Power System Operations. Ackermann , T., ed. Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 18-19 October 2010, Quebec, Canada. Langen, Germany: Energynautics GmbH; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-54611.

115.   Milligan, M.; Donohoo, P.; Lew, D.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Holttinen, H.; Lannoye, E.; Flynn, D.; O'Malley, M.; Miller, N.; Eriksen, P. B.; Gottig, A.; Rawn, B.; Gibescu, M.; Lazaro, E. G.; Robitaille, A.; Kamwa, I. (2010). Operating Reserves and Wind Power Integration: An International Comparison; Preprint. Prepared for the 9th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 18-19 October 2010, Quebec, Canada; 19 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-49019. 

116.   Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A. (2010). Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint. Prepared for the 9th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants, 18-19 October 2010, Quebec, Canada; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-49106. 

117.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E. (2010). Providing Minute-to-Minute Regulation from Wind Plants: Preprint. Prepared for the 9th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems; and Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plant, 18-19 October 2010, Quebec, Canada; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-48971.

118.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S. (2010). Benefit of Regional Energy Balancing Service on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection of the United States: Preprint. Prepared for the 9th Annual International Workshop on Large-Scale Integration of Wind Power into Power Systems as well as on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Power Plants; October 18-19, 2010; Quebec, Canada; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-5500-49076. 

119.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S. (2010). Potential Reductions in Variability with Alternative Approaches to Balancing Area Cooperation with High Penetrations of Variable Generation. 78 pp.; NREL Report No. MP-550-48427.

120.   Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M. (2010). Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation. 61 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-6A2-47187.

121.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S. (2010). Combining Balancing Areas' Variability: Impacts on Wind Integration in the Western Interconnection. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 23-26 May 2010, Dallas, Texas; 29 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-48249. 

122.   Kallesen, D.; Milligan, M.; Zavadil, R.; Hunt, R.; Johannes, C. (2010). Nebraska Statewide (NPA) Wind Integration Study: Key Results. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 23-26 May 2010, Dallas, Texas.

123.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2010). Utilizing Load Response for Wind and Solar Integration and Power System Reliability. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 23-26 May 2010, Dallas, Texas; 21 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-48247.

124.   Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Lew, D.; Corbus, D.; Wan, Y. H. (2010). Advancing Wind Integration Study Methodologies: Implications of Higher Levels of Wind. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 23-26 May 2010, Dallas, Texas; 50 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-48944. 

125.   Lew, D.; Piwko, D.; Miller, N.; Jordan, G.; Clark, K.; Freeman, L. (2010). How Do High Levels of Wind and Solar Impact the Grid? The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study. 15 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-5500-50057. 

126.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2010). Market Characteristics for Efficient Integration of Variable Generation in the Western Interconnection. 51 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-550-48192.

127.   Lannoye, E.; Milligan, M.; Adams, J.; Tuohy, A.; Chandler, H.; Flynn, D.; O'Malley, M. (2010). Integration of Variable Generation: Capacity Value and Evaluation of Flexibility. Proceedings of the IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting, 25-29 July 2010, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); 6 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-49808. 

128.   Holttinen, H. Meibom, P.; Orths, A.; van Hulle, F.; Lange, B.; O’Malley, M.; Pierik, J.; Ummels, B.; Olav Tande, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Matos, M.; Ricardo, J.; Gomez, E.; Lennart, S.; Strbac, G.; Shakoor, A.; Charles Smith, J.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E. (2009). Design and Operations of Power Systems with Large Amounts of Wind Power: Final Report, IEA Wind Task 25, Phase One: 2006–2008. Finland: VTT. Available at http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/tiedotteet/2009/T2493.pdf

129.   Mills, A.; Wiser, R.; Milligan, M.; O'Malley, M. (2009). Comment on 'Air Emissions Due to Wind and Solar Power'. Environmental Science and Technology. Vol. 43(15), 2009; pp. 6106-6107; NREL Report No. JA-550-46625. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es900831b

130.   Milligan, M.; Lew, D.; Corbus, D.; Piwko, R.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Zavadil, B.; Schuerger, M. (2009). Large-Scale Wind Integration Studies in the United States: Preliminary Results; Preprint. Prepared for the 8th International Workshop on Large Scale Integration of Wind Power and on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, 14-15 October 2009, Bremen, Germany; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-46527. 

131.   Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Freeman, L.; Miller, N.; Clark, K.; Piwko, R. (2009). How do Wind and Solar Power Affect Grid Operations: The Western Wind and Solar Integration Study; Preprint. Prepared for the 8th International Workshop on Large Scale Integration of Wind Power and on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, 14-15 October 2009, Bremen, Germany; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-46517. 

132.   Corbus, D.; Milligan, M.; Ela, E.; Schuerger, M.; Zavadil, B. (2009). Eastern Wind Integration and Transmission Study - Preliminary Findings: Preprint. Prepared for the 8th International Workshop on Large Scale Integration of Wind Power and on Transmission Networks for Offshore Wind Farms, 14-15 October 2009, Bremen, Germany; 9 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-46505.

133.   Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Parsons, B.; Lew, D.; Corbus, D. (2009). Evolution of Wind Power Integration Studies: Past, Present, and Future. [Proceedings] 2009 IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting (PES 09);26-30 July 2009; Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-47059. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/pes.2009.5275981

134.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Gramlich, R.; Goggin, M. (2009). Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind Penetration Potential. 31 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-550-46273.

135.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M. (2009). Capacity Requirements to Support Inter-Balancing Area Wind Delivery. 29 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-550-46274.  

136.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M. (2009). Capacity Requirements to Support Inter-Balancing Area Wind Delivery. Windpower 2009 Conference & Exhibition [Full Conference Materials DVD-ROM], 4-7 May 2009, Chicago, Illinois. Washington, D.C.: American Wind Energy Association (AWEA); produced by Fleetwood Onsite Conference Recording 22 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-550-46842.

137.   Milligan, M.; Porter K.; DeMeo, E.; Denholm, P.; Holttinen, H.; Kirby, B.; Miller, N.; Mills, A.; O'Malley, M.; Schuerger, M.; Soder, L. (2009). Wind Power Myths Debunked. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. Vol. 7(6), November/December; pp. 89-99; NREL Report No. JA-550-47230.

138.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2009). Calculating Wind Integration Costs: Separating Wind Energy Value from Integration Cost Impacts. 28 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-550-46275.

139.   North American Electric Reliability Corporation. (2009). Accommodating High Levels of Variable Generation. Integrating Variable Generation Task Force report. April. Available at http://www.nerc.com/docs/pc/ivgtf/IVGTF_Report_041609.pdf  

140.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Gramlich, R.; Goggin, M. (2009). Impact of Electric Industry Structure on High Wind Penetration Potential. 31 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-550-46273. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy09osti/46273.pdf

141.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2008). The Impact of Balancing Area Size and Ramping Requirements on Wind Integration. Wind Engineering. Vol. 32(4); pp. 399-413.

142.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M. (2008). Examination of Capacity and Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy on Power Systems. 26 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-500-42872.

143.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M. (2008). Examination of Capacity and Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy on Power Systems.The Electricity Journal. Vol. 21(7); August/September; pp. 30-42. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2008.08.002 

144.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2008). Analysis of Sub-Hourly Ramping Impacts of Wind Energy and Balancing Area Size: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 1-4 June 2008, Houston, Texas; 19 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-43434.

145.   Dragoon, K.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M. (2008). Do Wind Forecasts Make Good Generation Schedules? Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 1-4 June 2008, Houston, Texas; 13 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-43507.

validate below

146.   Milligan, M.; Porter, K. (2008). Wind Capacity Value. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 1-4 June 2008, Houston, Texas.

147.   Ensslin, C.; Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; O’Malley, M.; Keane, A. (2008). Current Methods to Calculate Capacity Credit of Wind Power. IEA Collaboration. Prepared for the IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting.

148.   Milligan, M.; Porter, K. (2008). Capacity Value of Wind in the U.S.: An Update. Prepared for the IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting.

149.   Holttinen, H.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Molinski, T.; Neimane, V. (2008). Using Standard Deviation as a Measure of Increased Operational Reserve Requirement for Wind Power. Wind Engineering. Vol. 32(4); pp. 355-378.

150.   Smith, J. C.; Parsons, B.; Acker, T.; Milligan, M.; Zavadil, R.; Schuerger, M.; DeMeo, E. (2007). Best Practices in Grid Integration of Variable Wind Power: Summary of Recent US Case Study Results and Mitigation Measures. Prepared for the European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition, 7-10 May 2007, Milan, Italy; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-41635.

151.   DeMeo, E.A.; Jordan, G.; Kalich, C.; King, J.; Milligan, M.R.; Murley, C.; Oakleaf, B.; Schuerger, M. (2007). Wind Plant Integration: Advances in Insights and Methods. IEEE Power and Energy. December.

152.   Wan, Y.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2007). Impact of Energy Imbalance Tariff on Wind Energy. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 3-6 June 2007, Los Angeles, California; 13 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-40663. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/wind/pdfs/40663.pdf

153.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B. (2007). Impact of Balancing Areas Size, Obligation Sharing, and Ramping Capability on Wind Integration: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 3-6 June 2007, Los Angeles, California; 43 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-41809. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/wind/pdfs/41809.pdf

154.   Tegen, S.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M. (2007). Economic Development Impacts of Wind Power: A Comparative Analysis of Impacts within the Western Governors' Association States; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 3-6 June 2007, Los Angeles, California; 19 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-41808. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/wind/pdfs/41808.pdf

155.   Smith, J. C.; Milligan, M. R.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B. (2007). Utility Wind Integration and Operating Impact State of the Art. IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Vol. 22(3), August; pp. 900-908; NREL Report No. JA-500-41329. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TPWRS.2007.901598

156.   Milligan, M. (2006). Tackling Climate Change in the United States: The Potential Contribution from Wind Power. Prepared for the American Solar Energy Society Conference, Denver, Colorado. Available at http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/tribalenergy/pdfs/course_wind_milligan2.pdf

157.   M. Milligan, numerous co-authors, Wind Task Force Report to the Clean and Diverse Energy Advisory Committee. Western Interstate Energy Board, Western Governors Association. (2006).

158.   Parsons, B.; Milligan, M.; Smith, J. C.; DeMeo, E.; Oakleaf, B.; Wolf, K.; Schuerger, M.; Zavadil, R.; Ahlstrom, M.; Nakafuji, D. Y. (2006). Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States; Preprint. Prepared for the European Wind Energy Conference, February 27 - March 2, 2006, Athens, Greece; 16 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-39955. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/39955.pdf

159.   Parsons, B.; Milligan, M.; Smith, J. C.; DeMeo, E.; Oakleaf, B.; Wolf, K.; Schuerger, M.; Zavadil, R.; Ahlstrom, M.; Nakafuji, D. Y. (2006). Grid Impacts of Wind Power Variability: Recent Assessments from a Variety of Utilities in the United States. Prepared for the Nordic Wind Power Conference, Espoo, Finland, May. (Note: This is an updated version of [108]).

160.   Milligan, M.; Shiu, H.; Kirby, B.; Jackson, K. (2006). Multi-Year Analysis of Renewable Energy Impacts in California: Results from the Renewable Portfolio Standards Integration Cost Analysis; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 4-7 June 2006, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 40 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-40058. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/40058.pdf

161.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y. (2006). Cost-Causation-Based Tariffs for Wind Ancillary Service Impacts: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 4-7 June 2006, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 26 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-40073. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/40073.pdf

162.   Tegen, S.; Goldberg, M.; Milligan, M. (2006). User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Coal, Natural Gas, and Wind: The Expanded Jobs and Economic Development Impact Model (JEDI II); Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 4-7 June 2006, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 25 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-40085. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/40085.pdf

163.   Milligan, M.; Parsons, B.; Shimshak, R.; Larson, D.; Carr, T. (2006). Wind Supply Curves and Location Scenarios in the West: Summary of the Clean and Diverse Energy Wind Task Force Report; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 4-7 June 2006, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; 53 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-40050. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy06osti/40050.pdf

164.   Shiu, H.; Milligan, M. Kirby, B.; Jackson, K. (2006). California Renewables Portfolio Standard Renewable Generation Integration Cost Report. Prepared for the California Energy Commission, May. Available at http://consultkirby.com/files/CA_RPS_Int_Cost_Multiyear_FINAL_REPORT_2006-05-11.pdf

165.   Milligan, M.; Porter, K. (2006). Capacity Value of Wind in the United States: Methods and Implementation. Electricity Journal. Vol. 19(2), March; pp. 91-99; NREL Report No. JA-500-38636. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2005.12.010

166.   Milligan, M. (2006). Wind Energy System Integration Impacts and Costs. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. 15th Edition. Beaty, H.W., and Fink, D.G., eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, August. Available at http://doi.contentdirections.com/mr/mgh.jsp?doi=10.1036/0071441468  

167.   DeMeo, E.; Grant, W.; Schuerger, M.; M. Milligan (2005). Integration of Utility-Scale Wind Plants: Costs, Status, and Issues. IEEE Power and Energy Magazine. November/December.

168.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M. (2005). Method and Case Study for Estimating the Ramping Capability of a Control Area or Balancing Authority and Implications for Moderate or High Wind Penetration: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 15-18 May 2005, Denver, Colorado; 19 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-38153. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/38153.pdf 

169.   Krich, A.; Milligan, M. (2005). Impact of Wind Energy on Hourly Load Following Requirements: An Hourly and Seasonal Analysis; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 15-18 May 2005, Denver, Colorado; 20 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-38061. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/38061.pdf

170.   Milligan, M.; Porter, K. (2005). Determining the Capacity Value of Wind: A Survey of Methods and Implementation; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 15-18 May 2005, Denver, Colorado; 30 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-38062. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/38062.pdf 

171.   Milligan, M.; Berger, D. P. (2005). Preliminary Analysis and Case Study of Transmission Constraints and Wind Energy in the West: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 15-18 May 2005, Denver, Colorado; 17 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-38152. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy05osti/38152.pdf  

172.   Smith, J. C.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.; Milligan, M. (2005). Summary of Wind Power Impacts on Electric Power System Operating Costs. International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy. Vol. 3(4); pp. 342-354; NREL Report No. JA-500-37121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJETP.2005.008399

173.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Makarov, Y.; Hawkins, D.; Lovekin, J.; Jackson, K.; Shiu, H. (2004). California Renewables Portfolio Standard Renewable Generation Integration Cost Analysis: Phase III—Recommendations for Implementation. Prepared for the California Energy Commission, July. Available at http://www.energy.ca.gov/reports/500-04-054.PDF

174.   Smith, J. C.; DeMeo, E. A.; Parsons, B.; Milligan, M. (2004). Wind Power Impacts on Electric Power System Operating Costs: Summary and Perspective on Work to Date; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 29-31 March 2004, Chicago, Illinois; 13 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-35946. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35946.pdf

175.   Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Jackson, K.; Shiu, H.; Makarov, Y.; Hawkins, D. (2004). California RPS Integration Study: Phase I Summary and Results; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 29-31 March 2004, Chicago, Illinois; 32 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-35947. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35947.pdf  

176.   Hamilton, R.; Lehr, R.; Olsen, D.; Nielsen, J.; Acker, T.; Milligan, M.; Geller, H. (2004). Integrating Wind into Transmission Planning: The Rocky Mountain Area Transmission Study (RMATS): Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 29-31 March 2004, Chicago, Illinois; 26 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-35969. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35969.pdf 

177.   Sinclair, K.; Milligan, M.; Goldberg, M. (2004). Job and Economic Development Impact (JEDI) Model: A User-Friendly Tool to Calculate Economic Impacts from Wind Projects; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 29-31 March 2004, Chicago, Illinois; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-35953. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35953.pdf

178.   Wind Energy Economics. (2004). In Energy Encyclopedia. Academic Press.

179.   Milligan, M.; Schwartz, M. N.; Wan, Y. (2003). Statistical Wind Power Forecasting for U.S. Wind Farms: Preprint. Prepared for the 17th Conference on Probability and Statistics in the Atmospheric Sciences/2004 American Meteorological Society Annual Meeting, 11-15 January 2004, Seattle, Washington; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-35087. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy04osti/35087.pdf 

180.   Wan, Y.; Milligan, M.; Parsons, B. (2003). Output Power Correlation Between Adjacent Wind Power Plants. Journal of Solar Energy Engineering. Transactions of the ASME. Vol. 125(4), November; pp. 551-555; NREL Report No. JA-500-33519. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1115/1.1626127

181.   Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.; Makarov, Y.; Hawkins, D. (2003). California Renewables Portfolio Standard: Renewable Generation Integration Cost Analysis. Prepared for the California Energy Commission. California Wind Energy Collaborative, December.

182.   Parsons, B.; Milligan, M.; Zavadil, B.; Brooks, D.; Kirby, B.; Dragoon, K.; Caldwell, J. (2003). Grid Impacts of Wind Power: A Summary of Recent Studies in the United States; Preprint. Prepared for the European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition, 16-19 June 2003, Madrid, Spain; 28 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-34318. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/34318.pdf 

183.   Milligan, M. (2003). Wind Power Plants and System Operation in the Hourly Time Domain: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 18-21 May 2003, Austin, Texas; 24 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-33955. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/33955.pdf

184.   Milligan, M.; Schwartz, M.; Wan, Y. (2003). Statistical Wind Power Forecasting Models: Results for U.S. Wind Farms; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 18-21 May 2003, Austin, Texas; 17 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-33956. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/33956.pdf

185.   Dragoon, K.; Milligan, M. (2003). Assessing Wind Integration Costs with Dispatch Models: A Case Study of PacifiCorp; Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 18-21 May 2003, Austin, Texas; 15 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-34022. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/34022.pdf   

186.   Milligan, M. (2003). Reserves and Regulation in Systems with Large-Scale Wind Power Plants. Invited paper, special issue of Electric Power Systems Research. Strbac, G., ed., University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, United Kingdom.

187.   Wan, Y.; Parsons, B.; Milligan, M. (2003). Output Power Correlation Between Nearby Wind Power Plants. Collection of the 2003 ASME Wind Energy Symposium Technical Papers at the 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, 6-9 January 2003, Reno, Nevada. New York: American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc. (AIAA) and American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) pp. 351-356; NREL Report No. CP-500-32726.

188.   Milligan, M.; Porter, K.; Parsons, B.; Caldwell, J. (2002). Wind Energy and Power System Operations: A Survey of Current Research and Regulatory Actions. The Electricity Journal. Vol. 15(2), March; pp. 56-67; NREL Report No. JA-500-31394. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6190(02)00267-1

189.   Schwartz, M. N.; Milligan, M. (2002). Statistical Wind Forecasting at the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory (viewgraphs only). Thor, S.-E., ed. First IEA Joint Action Symposium on Wind Forecasting Techniques, December 2002, Noorkoping, Sweden; Organised by: SMHI, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. International Energy Agency: Implementing Agreement for Co-operation in the Research and Development of Wind Turbine Systems; Annex XI. [S.l.] : International Energy Agency pp. 115-124B; NREL Report No. PR-500-33264.

190.   Milligan, M. (2002). Analytic Assessments of the Economics, Reliability, and Operating Impacts of Wind Power Plants. Energy Studies Review. Vol. 11(1); pp. 1-22. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: McMaster Institute for Energy Studies.

191.   Milligan, M. R. (2002). Chronological Reliability Model Incorporating Wind Forecasts to Assess Wind Plant Reserve Allocation: Preprint. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 3-5 June 2002, Portland, Oregon; 14 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-32210. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/32210.pdf   

192.   Milligan, M.; Caldwell, J.; Porter, K.; Parsons, B.; Cadogan, J. (2002). Grid Operating Impacts: Analytic Assessments and Market Treatment of Wind Intermittency in the United States. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, April, Paris.

193.   Milligan, M.; Porter, K.; Parsons, B.; Caldwell, J. (2002). Wind Energy and Power System Operations: A Survey of Current Research and Regulatory Actions. The Electricity Journal. Vol. 15(2), March; pp. 56-67; NREL Report No. JA-500-31394. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1040-6190(02)00267-1

194.   Milligan, M. R. (2002). Modeling Utility-Scale Wind Power Plants, Part 2: Capacity Credit. 67 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-500-29701. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy02osti/29701.pdf

195.   Milligan, M. R. (2001). Chronological Reliability Model to Assess Operating Reserve Allocation to Wind Power Plants: Preprint. Prepared for the 2001 European Wind Energy Conference, 2-6 July 2001, Copenhagen, Denmark; 7 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-30490. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/30490.pdf 

196.   Milligan, M. R. (2001). Sliding Window Technique for Calculating System LOLP Contributions of Wind Power Plants. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 4-7 June 2001, Washington, D.C.; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-30363. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/30363.pdf  

197.   Lehr, R. L.; Nielsen, J.; Andrews, S.; Milligan, M. (2001). Colorado Public Utility Commission's Xcel Wind Decision. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 4-7 June 2001, Washington, D.C.; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-30551. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/30551.pdf   

198.   Factors Relevant to Incorporating Wind Power Plants into the Generating Mix in Restructured Electricity Markets. (2001). Prepared for the 24th Annual International Conference of the International Association for Energy Economics. Houston, Texas. Spring.

199.   Milligan, M. R. (2000). Modeling Utility-Scale Wind Power Plants, Part 1: Economics. 39 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-500-27514. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy00osti/27514.pdf

200.   Milligan, M. R. (2000). Modeling Utility-Scale Wind Power Plants, Part 1: Economics. Wind Energy Journal. Vol. 2(4), October/December; pp. 167-193. Available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/1099-1824(199910/12)2:4%3C167::AID-WE25%3E3.0.CO;2-A/pdf   

201.   Milligan, M.; Factor, T. (2000). Optimizing the Geographic Distribution of Wind Plants in Iowa for Maximum Economic Benefit and Reliability. Wind Engineering. Vol. 24(4), July; pp. 271-290. Available at http://multi-science.metapress.com/content/u471h3n497488483/fulltext.pdf

202.   Cadogan, J.; Milligan, M.; Wan, Y.; Kirby, B. (2000). Short-Term Output Variations in Wind Farms--Implications for Ancillary Services in the United States: Preprint. Prepared for the Wind Power for the 21st Century Conference, 26-28 September 2000, Kassel, Germany; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-29155. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/29155.pdf  

203.   Milligan, M. (2000). Wind Power Planning and Operation Benefits and Issues in Evolving Competitive Markets. Energy and Environment Special Edition, Renewable Energy: Key Issues for the new Millennium. Mitchell, C., ed. Vol. 11(4). Brentwood, Essex, United Kingdom: Multi-Science Publishing Co., LTD. 

204.   Milligan, M. R.; Factor, T. (2000). Application of a Dynamic Fuzzy Search Algorithm to Determine Optimal Wind Plant Sizes and Locations in Iowa: Preprint. Prepared for the International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, 25-28 September 2000, Funchal, Madiera, Portugal; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-27713. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy01osti/27713.pdf 

205.   Milligan, M.; Parsons, B. (1999). A Comparison and Case Study of Capacity Credit Algorithms for Wind Power Plants. Vol. 23(3). Brentwood, Essex, United Kingdom: Multi-Science Publishing Co., LTD. (Note: An updated, invited submission was submitted to the Journal of Wind Engineering.) 

206.   Factor, T.; Milligan, M. (1999). Evaluation of Optimal Distribution of Wind Power Facilities in Iowa for 2015. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 21-23 June 1999, Burlington, Vermont; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-26723. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy99osti/26723.pdf

207.   Milligan, M. R.; Artig, R. (1999). Choosing Wind Power Plant Locations and Sizes Based on Electric Reliability Measures Using Multiple-Year Wind Speed Measurements. Prepared for the U.S. Association for Energy Economics Annual Conference, 29 August—1 September 1999, Orlando, Florida; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-26724. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy99osti/26724.pdf

208.   Milligan, M. Buhl, M.; Carlin, P.; Sinclair, K.; Tromly, K. (1999). Chapter 11: Wind Energy System Integration Impacts and Costs. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers. 14th Edition. Beaty, H.W., and Fink, D.G., eds. New York: McGraw-Hill, November.  

209.   Milligan, M. R. (1999). Utility-Scale Wind Energy Conversion Systems: Modeling and Applications. IEEE Power Engineering Review. Vol. 19(11), November; pp. 13-14; NREL Report No. 24918. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MPER.1999.799636 

210.   Milligan, M. R.; Artig, R. (1998). Optimal Site Selection and Sizing of Distributed Utility-Scale Wind Power Plants. Prepared for International Association of Energy Economists, 21st Annual International Conference, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 13-16, 1998; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-24312. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/24312.pdf  

211.   Milligan, M. R.; Artig, R. (1998). Reliability Benefits of Dispersed Wind Resource Development. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 27 April – 1 May 1998, Bakersfield, California; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-24314. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24314.pdf   

212.   Kline, J.; Milligan, M. (1998). Evaluation of Hourly Average Wind-Speed Estimation Techniques. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 27 April – 1 May 1998, Bakersfield, California; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-500-24664. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy98/24664.pdf    

213.   Milligan, M. R.; Graham, M. S. (1997). Enumerative Technique for Modeling Wind Power Variations in Production Costing. Prepared for the International Conference on Probabilistic Methods Applied to Power Systems, 21-25 September 1997, Vancouver, Canada; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-440-22868. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy97/22868.pdf 

214.   Milligan, M. (1997). Wind Plant Capacity Credit Variations: A Comparison of Results Using Multiyear Actual and Simulated Wind-Speed Data. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 15-18 June 1997, Austin, Texas; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-440-23096. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/23096.pdf 

215.   Milligan, M.; Parsons, B. (1997). Comparison and Case Study of Capacity Credit Algorithms for Intermittent Generators. Prepared for the Solar Energy Forum, 25-30 April 1997, Washington, D.C.; 8 pp.; NREL Report No. CP-440-22591. Available at http://wind.ucdavis.edu/rpsintegration/library/NREL-CP-440-22591%20Mar97%20Milligan%20Parsons.pdf 

216.   Milligan, M. (1996). Wind Data Replacement Algorithms. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, National Wind Technology Center. Working Paper. 

217.   Milligan, M. R.; Pang, C. K.; Tam, G. (1996). Alternative Methods of Modeling Wind Generation Using Production Cost Models. Prepared for the Conference of the Electricity Supply Industry, 21-25 October 1996, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-440-21411. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/21411.pdf

218.   Milligan, M. R.; Graham, M. S. (1996). Enumerated Probabilistic Simulation Technique and Case Study: Integrating Wind Power into Utility Production Cost Models. Prepared for IEEE Power Engineering Society Summer Meeting, 29 July - 1 August 1996, Denver, Colorado; 19 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-440-21530. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy96/21530.pdf

219.   Milligan, M. R. (1996). Variance Estimates of Wind Plant Capacity Credit. Prepared for the American Wind Energy Association Conference, WINDPOWER, 23-27 June 1996, Denver, Colorado; 11 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-440-21311. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy96/21311.pdf 

220.   Milligan, M. R. (1996). Measuring Wind Plant Capacity Value. 10 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-441-20493. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/fy96/20493.pdf

221.   Milligan, M. R. (1996). Alternative Wind Power Modeling Methods Using Chronological and Load Duration Curve Production Cost Models. 43 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-441-8171. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/8171.pdf 

222.   Milligan, M. R.; Miller, A. H.; Chapman, F. (1995). Estimating the Economic Value of Wind Forecasting to Utilities. Prepared for the American Association of Wind Energy Conference, WINDPOWER, 27-30 March 1995, Washington, DC; 12 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-441-7803. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/7803.pdf

223.   Milligan, M. R.; Miller, A. H. (1993). Value of Windpower: An Investigation Using a Qualified Production Cost Model. Prepared for the American Association of Wind Energy Conference, WINDPOWER, 13-16 July 1993, San Francisco, California; 10 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-441-5730. Available at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/legosti/old/5730.pdf

224.   Milligan, M., Translating Binary Files to C Header Files. (1992). PC Techniques. July/August. Reprinted in C/C++Power Tools, Duntemann and Weiskamp, eds. New York: Bantam Books.

225.   Milligan, M., Non-linear Systems of Equation-Solving in Pascal. (1988). Access. September/October.

226.   Milligan, M., Review of Eureka: The Solver. (1989). Access. July/August.

227.   Milligan, M., Easy Model 100 Data Transfers. (1987). PC Magazine. November.

 





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